Criminology is a legal science with a social profile, with application in everything concerning the prevention or social control of delinquency and crime. It applies the methods of science for the discovery, investigation, and interpretation of the external and internal factors that generate crime.
In its structure, it has four important levels, one of them is Clinical Criminology, also called Applied Criminology, or as Professor Ernesto Pérez González prefers to name it: small format, which has as its social purpose the application of criminological objectives to the process. criminal, that is, individualizes the investigation.
From this perspective, Criminology is no longer a desktop science, doctrines, and concepts, since it intervenes in the investigative processes of crimes proactively, uses interdisciplinary as a system, and has a positive impact on the processes.
Criminology as science is linked to the scientific-social history of humanity, so its origin, advances, and perspectives are linked, depend on, and reflect the knowledge and work of man.
Importance of Criminology in Pakistan:
They study the social and psychological factors that cause people to commit crimes and investigate which rehabilitation approaches work and which do not. In essence, they work to develop a society that is less prone or susceptible to criminal acts.
Since its inception, crime investigation has undergone unavoidable changes determined by the level of cultural development that societies have acquired and the consolidation of scientific research methods.
In the essential classic: The Century of Criminal Investigation, information on the emergence and evolution of the sciences and specialties of crime investigations is collected, which is corroborated by other authors with only minor adjustments with some dates, but without any significant contradiction.
A fundamental premise in this type of investigation is that: in matters so close to something socially as conflictive as crime, the criteria, whether general or specific, will not always be – much less have been – unanimous and this sometimes demands analysis from each researcher critical and profound. For the psychologist or psychiatrist, this is not a new dilemma, precisely in the sciences, some dissimilar schools and tendencies try to elaborate or adapt the definitions of human subjectivity, its broad categories, explanations, and disorders, to the most varied points view.
The confrontation with a crime does not admit errors, and requires a high professional level from all researchers and experts, especially from medical examiners and criminal experts, for which quality of expertise is demanded, and this is defined as a procedural activity developed, by judicial order, by persons other than the parties in the process, specially qualified by their technical, artistic or scientific knowledge, through which arguments or reasons are supplied to the judge for the formation of their conviction regarding the facts.
Science and technology provide new knowledge to face crimes, thus transforming the investigation into a demanding and rigorous procedure. The application of scientific methods enables objective investigations that make it possible to clarify the transgression, through obtaining procedurally valid elements, beyond the testimony of witnesses, with all the elements based on scientific evidence.
For the realization of this article, the authors have carried out a documentary review of the scientific articles of the last three years of the Journal Forensic Science, also of the Journal of Criminology of Baja California. For this reason, this work aims to review the importance of the clinical criminology approach in forensic investigation.
Study objectives and application levels:
They include, in the field of study of Criminology, crime, modus, punishment, the offender, criminality, institutional social reaction, the cost of crime, the victim, and preventive programs.
Different levels of reading or application of Criminology:
- Scientist (body of knowledge and theory about crime)
- Applied (contributions of criminology to science and criminal proceedings)
- Analytical (aimed at analyzing criminal policy)
How do I become a criminologist?
People interested in becoming criminologists typically pursue at least a master’s degree in the field. You can start with a bachelor’s degree in criminology, psychology, or sociology. Criminologists must also understand laws and law enforcement procedures, so they can take criminal justice courses as well.
The academic training of a criminologist is quite difficult though. For those interested in applied research or teaching at the university level, it may take another three to six years to earn a Ph.D.
Crime for Criminology:
None of these concepts of crime can be assumed, as absolute, by Criminology; its legal scientific autonomy, the very determination of its object can critically study why certain conduct is considered a crime or why not.
Criminal Law uses a formal and normative concept of crime, imposed by inescapable requirements of legality and legal security: crime is all conduct provided for in criminal law and only that which the law sanctions; but it also only is and can be dealt with when the conduct that characterizes it in the penal code has occurred.
For psychologists and psychiatrists, the study of the individual subject is recurrent. If you work for the penal system, it is common to request the individual study of subjects, within a prior criminal process.
Due to the existence of “high impact” criminological problems and results, linked to the high levels of society and even to the community of nations, there are no more problems, also criminological, that are limited to individuals or small groups, the solution of which is necessary. and important, for example, when dealing with the individualization of the sentence.
What are the different types of crimes?
- False imprisonment.
- Homicide: crimes such as manslaughter in the first and second degree, involuntary manslaughter, and vehicular manslaughter.
- Rape, rape, sexual assault, and other crimes of a sexual nature.
- Clinical criminology and scientific research
Not every study, whose research instruments are applied to individuals, is typical of clinical criminology, nor does it have to be “positivist.” In an investigation that addresses a problem with a response hypothesis in social rank, the study units are people who, adequately explored, will be able to provide information to deny or affirm that hypothesis.
For example interviews and surveys of men who mistreat their partners can be very good sources to characterize the formation of their social construct on gender and violence; socio-economic context; whether or not they have been achieved, and to what degree, by preventive measures; if their previous acts were part of a hidden figure in this variant of crime; sentence received and specific penal rehabilitation -or other- received as abusers; the police response to eventual requests for help or complaints from their victims; and similar research objectives that may be directed to analyze criminal policy in these cases.
Definition of Clinical Criminology:
It applies to its knowledge and theories to the individual subject to try to reach a comprehensive explanation for each case. It considers the human being as a biological, psychological, social, and moral entity; deals with the study of the offender, the person of the offender.
Until the integrationist assessment of the biological factors, not the psychological ones, the imprint and influence of the society cannot be ignored either. Medicine itself, apparently concerned with eminently biological problems, many decades ago assumed an integrationist position and is an eminently social science and practice.
It is the scientific study of the causes and prevention of criminal behavior. It involves studying crime as a social phenomenon. From a legalistic perspective, crime is something that violates the law.
The scope of criminology includes perspectives on how to make laws, break laws, and societal reactions to laws that are broken. As such, the study within this social science is extensive.
Besides the above, what is the scope of criminology in Pakistan and division of criminology?
Criminology is the study of crime detection. It is related to the field of Forensic Sciences.
Criminology study includes its causes, law enforcement responses, and prevention methods.
Objectives of clinical Criminology:
What places a study within clinical criminology is its objective: “the observance and deep analysis of individual, normal, abnormal or pathological cases”, the multidisciplinary search for explanations to the individual case, to know the genesis of its criminal conduct and apply personalized treatment, ensure their reintegration into society and put social resources in favor of it. Unlike the psychiatric expert examination, the criminological examination does not aim to establish the criminal responsibility of the subject by taking into account possible mental disorders, although this will be discussed in detail in a later topic.
In some authors, with a strong positivist influence, the criterion can be found that the clinical criminological study has as its essential or exclusive objective, to establish the dangerousness of the subject studied and that this is its key concept, which limits its objectives to determine if it is going to continue to commit crimes and to what extent, trying to specify their criminal capacity (amount of crime that the criminal can commit) and their adaptability (ability to adapt to the environment in which they live).
In any case, there are two essential criminological questions to be answered when analyzing a criminal:
Who is the individual who commits the crime?
What response should be given to their behavior?
It could be doubted whether, from a set of individual studies with clinical criminological objectives, results of general application can be obtained. The element to consider is whether the group studied was homogeneous, and to what degree, by random or population, is it representative of a sector in which a certain crime is manifested.
Is Criminology a Bachelor’s or a Bachelor’s degree?
A person with a degree in criminology can have a wide range of opportunities in criminal justice agencies, social work and community, education departments as a prison officer, criminal psychologist, and more.
It is normal for students to be double-minded about a bachelor’s or bachelor’s degree in criminal justice. A Bachelor of Arts is usually less specialized than a Bachelor of Science. On the other hand, the Bachelor of Science is technical and scientific.
Scope of Criminology in Pakistan. Is Criminology a Good Career?
Criminology has a good professional scope. Studying Criminology can not only help solve crimes, but it can also help prevent them in the first place. By leveraging investigative, analytical, and reasoning skills, criminal justice professionals armed with a degree in Criminology will always need to stay mentally sharp in the execution of their duties.
After specializing in Criminology, one has great career opportunities and that too with high salary packages. A graduate can expect to work in the public and private sectors such as the State Police, Central Police, FBI, CBI, NGOs, human rights agencies, medical hospitals, etc.
What is the highest paying job in criminology?
These are the highest-paying jobs you can get with a criminal justice degree.
- Financial examiners.
- University professor.
- Forensic Science Technician.
- Community Probation and Control Officer.
- Loss prevention specialist.
- Security managers.
- Customs officers.
- Police officers.
- Corrections Administrators. Fire investigators.
Scope of criminology in Pakistan is very high. The application of criminological investigations in current forensic investigations does not constitute another procedure within the criminal process. It is a need to integrate academic and scientific doctrinal criminological knowledge to the application of complementary investigations. That provide quality to the criminal process.
By establishing a group of requirements that within the variety of the case make the investigation as homogeneous as possible. In this way, opportunities will be granted to the different cases. It means that the work team that investigates it does not matter, but the most important thing is to have researchers with the knowledge, skills, and abilities in clinical research.
Clinical Criminology pursues two identifiable ends: the first would be the application of all the previous knowledge to the particular subject, and the second would be related to the investigation of new theories and methods for the concrete case.
Interdisciplinary in forensic and criminal investigations is the most effective tool to achieve quality in the criminal process. The person accused of a certain crime; For this reason, the competent bodies must demonstrate with the greatest clarity all the scientific evidence, both in the expert and investigative order, always with the application of the scientific method.
It is not possible to guarantee analytical criminology if the elements and data of the investigations of criminal proceedings, individually, are not reliable or have objectivity.